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  1. #1
    Do someone her know what forces to expect in the X,Y and Z direction for different materials, feed rates and chip-load? Or if there is equation for it?
    I'm especially looking for some general number for aluminium and mild steel ( very general question). It's mostly to understand what to expect when doing FEA for stiffness and deflection on a router design. I guess X and Y would be the same.
    Last edited by PotatoMill; 16-04-2016 at 06:50 PM.

  2. #2
    If you cut downhill, as you should, you don't need much force at all.

    Concentrate on speed and rigidity. Nearly everyone fits motors that are way too big, I know I did, cutting force is unlikely to be one of your problems.

  3. #3
    Thanks for the response.
    Stiffness, rigidity and forces are correlated. If there is no forces there is no need for a big sturdy mill to cut steel for example. Or is there something i'm missing?

    Regarding speed, so for example Nema23 3Nm (425oz) motors are strong enough, but too slow? Why do someone use nema34 at all?

  4. #4
    Quote Originally Posted by PotatoMill View Post
    If there is no forces there is no need for a big sturdy mill to cut steel for example.
    Don't think I am getting at you, but have you actually tried turning the handles on a vertical milling machine?

    It is very tempting to cut up hill and accept that the tool will bend in to the work piece rather than away, because cutting downhill it can run away with you. You are not so much pushing the tool as trying to stop it.
    If there is any backlash everything has gone wrong before you get a chance to compensate.
    You can try tightening the Gibb's to get something you can push against but that makes your arms ache. Perhaps that is the force you are thinking about?

  5. #5
    I have used vertical milling machines a few times but i'm always using automatic feed. So I guess I have no feeling for it. I do neither know the usual gearing ratio on the handles on a vertical mill.

    However in statics, deflection is dependent on torque or force. In both conventional milling and climb milling there will be some forces. There will not be any deflection without it, hesne sources of backlash, rigidity, and stiffness. I'm thinking about designing a machine that potensially can do HS tool-paths, and without knowing the right variables for calculating deflecting it could easily become a overly expensive or a shitty machine.
    Last edited by PotatoMill; 16-04-2016 at 09:23 PM. Reason: Grammar

  6. #6
    I found what I was looking for here
    Rough estimations
    Typical forces in XY
    Wood > 5N
    Aluminium > 20N
    Steel > 75N

  7. #7
    Having had my cnc plasma gantry FEA'd this is intersting stuff, but surely those figures are dependant on tool size?

  8. #8
    In the past I've used the numbers in post #6 (which came from Irving) for deflection calculations in the absence of anything else. At least you can then start comparing designs with each other.

    Recently I found these from Kistler (manufacturer of measurement sensors). For milling they show typical forces (I assume cutting steel with ~8mm tool going by the picture?) of about 160 N?

    Also attached turning and drilling for info.

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  10. #9
    What about the torque reaction from the cutting tool on the Z axis, there must be a twisting motion too there.

    HSM Advisor gives tool cutting force and torque etc.

  11. #10
    m_c's Avatar
    Lives in East Lothian, United Kingdom. Last Activity: 3 Days Ago Has been a member for 9-10 years. Has a total post count of 2,147. Received thanks 236 times, giving thanks to others 5 times.
    Quote Originally Posted by Davek0974 View Post
    What about the torque reaction from the cutting tool on the Z axis, there must be a twisting motion too there.

    HSM Advisor gives tool cutting force and torque etc.
    That is your main force that you need to allow for. If you know what torque the cutter needs, you can then calculate the forces required to move the X & Y axis against the cutter, which is the force you'll need for any FEA. However for the axis motion system, you need to add extra to cover any friction/stiction and any inherent losses in the motion system.
    It's the Z axis where things get a bit more complicated, but your main force there is going to be while drilling or rotary broaching. Do neither of those, and you're biggest force is going to be from spiral milling cutters continually pulling/pushing the axis down/up.
    I've got a couple spreadsheets somewhere for drilling/broaching forces, which I made to work things out for my lathe, however for drilling it won't calculate pull through force, which can potentially pull the Z-axis straight down into the table if the drill grabs as it breaks through the material.
    Avoiding the rubbish customer service from AluminiumWarehouse since July '13.

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